That’s a really tough one! The animal kingdom covers so much that each type of animal has really different adaptations. I guess the main general ones would be adaptations to live on land or in water, but they’re pretty well known!
I think different methods of hunting and getting food in difficult environments often lead to really interesting adaptations. One of my favourites from the primate world is insect eating – chimps have evolved tool use like humans to do this, and can ‘fish’ for insect int tree trunks using sticks. Aye ayes have evolved a really long finger to do this instead!
Aniamals are adapted to their environment in all kinds of ways, from coloration, feeding behaviour, communication, migration etc.Each species has its own combination of adaptations that allow it to survive and reproduce in its own environment. Scientists are discovering new adaptations all the time. One of my favourite examples is the recent discovery that birds can *see* the earth’s magnetic field using specialised cells in the retina of their eye!